Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS)





Impedance Spectroscopy has been embraced by the corrosion specialist and the battery and fuel cell researcher, but the classical "electroanalytical" chemist has been lagging behind!

EIS Resource Topics on this website:

Fitting EIS Data to Equivalent Circuits can be a daunting task. Some guidelines and hints are presented here

The Constant Phase Element is a mystery to many. Perhaps this explanation will help. Depressed semicircle behavior can also be explained by the ZARC element! 

Calculators for finding the "true" C from a CPE are available. One calculates C from CPE parameters and an easily found frequency. Another uses fit parameters for a (RQ) sub-circuit to calculate the "true" capacitance.

Diffusion and EIS - Warburg is only the start! The O, T, and G elements. 

Inductors and Inductive Loops. Possible explanations. 
     Calculate wire inductance! 

Porous Electrodes - the de Levie model.

Use this calculator to relate coating properties and capacitance.

A refresher section on Complex Numbers plus some tricks & tips for Calculating Impedance Values..

Textbooks on EIS are available in The Bookstore.




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Short Courses:

A long-standing Short Course is scheduled each year in Houston, Texas.  The course is a blend of lectures and lab work. Click here for more information on this year's course.

Mark Orazem has given a short course in conjunction with ECS meetings. These courses provided the basis for his recent textbook.

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EIS Resources elsewhere on the 'Net:

Gamry has a short tutorial on Impedance under their App Notes heading. There is also a note on equivalent circuit modeling.

The 1980 Monographs by Gabrielli are available for download from Solartron Analytical as Technote04 and Technote24. Several other useful notes are also available. 

An introduction to EIS was featured in an A-Pages article in the Nov. 2003 issue of Analytical Chemistry -- "Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy for Better Electrochemcial Measurements", Anal Chem, 75 (2003) 455A.

A series of three articles in JCT Coatings Tech discusses EIS applied to coatings.research -- the first one deals with the basics of EIS.

There is a short tutorial/introduction to EIS on the Argentum Solutions site. It focuses on the applications of EIS to the study of corrosion. 

The European Internet Centre for Impedance Spectroscopy (EICIS) promises to be an internet storehouse of EIS information.   Although the present website is difficult to use, the information may prove useful.  Worth watching. They also make the Gabrielli note available for download. Check under e-School/e-Tutorial/Online Course.

ENSEEG (National School of Electrochemistry and Electrometallurgy of Grenoble) has an interesting "Handbook of EIS."   The site is mostly in French.  However, many of the EIS pdfs are in English.

Bio-logic has the Grenoble notes, but also has an interesting "Interactive Faradaic Impedance Library" that lets you vary the parameters of a model and see the results in your browser.






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